Researchers developed a new type of microfluidic device that can cultivate cells for longer periods of time, better reflecting how cancer cells to change over time. The device allowed them to capture the leader cells that would be first to break away and cause metastasis.
Researchers describe how the concentration of mucins — the proteins that make mucus thick — is abnormally high in chronic bronchitis and that high mucin concentrations are associated with disease severity in people with chronic bronchitis. This finding could become the first-ever objective marker of chronic bronchitis and lead to the creation of diagnostic and prognostic tools.
Ongoing advances in understanding the functional connections within the brain are producing exciting insights into how the brain circuits function together to support human behavior — and may lead to new discoveries in the development and treatment of psychiatric disorders, according to a review.
Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2) have been associated with the development of autoimmune disease including Type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s Disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
Researchers have identified how natural killer cells in the mouse placenta can cause a fetus to fail to grow in the womb or cause miscarriages.
Constipation is one of the most common non-motor related complaints affecting Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients.
When T cells encounter an antigen, they proliferate and produce various types of daughter cells. Medical researchers have now refuted the prevailing hypothesis that this immune response is largely predetermined by the individual structure of the T cell receptor. Instead, the influence of the T cell receptor can be described only in probabilistic terms. Such mathematical models may help to improve the design of future vaccination strategies.
A new test may help to rapidly diagnose preeclampsia in pregnant women. Elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin in the blood may play a role in the development of kidney damage associated with preeclampsia.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 may have evolved to integrate its genetic material into certain immune-cell-activating genes in humans, according to new research.
The blood-brain barrier is a crucial protection mechanism: it is a highly selective physical barrier that prevents pathogens and toxins in the circulatory system from entering the central nervous system where they could create havoc. At the same time, however, it prevents many therapeutic drugs from reaching the brain, making it much more difficult to treat medical conditions such as stroke, brain tumors or edemas.