A new study of the human microbiome has uncovered millions of previously unknown genes from microbial communities in the human gut, skin, mouth, and vaginal microbiome, allowing for new insights into the role these microbes play in human health and disease.
Researchers have used genome editing technology to reveal the role of a key gene in human embryos in the first few days of development. This is the first time that genome editing has been used to study gene function in human embryos, which could help scientists to better understand the biology of our early development.
Researchers have genetically engineered mice that display many of the behavioral hallmarks of human bipolar disorder, and that the abnormal behaviors the rodents show can be reversed using well-established drug treatments for bipolar disorder, such as lithium.
An internal clock has been discovered within live human cells, a finding that creates new opportunities for understanding the building blocks of life and the onset of disease.
Human papillomavirus 16 accounts for about half of all cervical cancers, but researchers have found that not all infections are equal. An analysis of the HPV16 genome from 5,570 human cell and tissue samples revealed that the virus actually consists of thousands of unique genomes, such that infected women living in the same region often have different HPV16 sequences and variable risks to cancer.
Scientists have converted skin cells from healthy adults directly into motor neurons without going through a stem cell state. The technique makes it possible to study motor neurons of the human central nervous system in the lab. Unlike commonly studied mouse motor neurons, human motor neurons growing in the lab would be a new tool since researchers can’t take samples of these neurons from living people but can easily take skin samples.
Researchers have established a link between hypoxia, a condition that reduces the flow of oxygen to tissues, and HOTAIR, a noncoding RNA or molecule that has been implicated in several types of cancer.
Again and again, it’s the rare among humans that help the rest of us. The exploration of human genetics is revealing new targets to combat heart disease among atypical variants. Mutations in genes that play a role in heart health are the inspiration for a cluster of new heart drugs.
Scientists have developed a new tool for imaging life at the nanoscale that will provide new insights into the role of transition metal ions such as copper in neurodegenerative diseases.
Researchers have demonstrated that differential bacterial exposure during the development of mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) can have carry-over effects on adult traits related to an insect’s ability to be a successful vector of arboviruses. This study represents an important step toward a more comprehensive understanding of how the environment shapes the risk of vector-borne disease.