A new study of the human microbiome has uncovered millions of previously unknown genes from microbial communities in the human gut, skin, mouth, and vaginal microbiome, allowing for new insights into the role these microbes play in human health and disease.
One often hears about the multitude of genes we have in common with chimps, birds or other living creatures, but such comparisons are sometimes misleading. The shared percentage usually refers only to genes that encode instructions for making proteins — while overlooking regulatory genes, which nonetheless make up a large part of the genome.
The genes that regulate gestational length and the likelihood of preterm delivery, have been identified in a study involving more than 50,000 women. An article describes the scientific breakthrough that can lead to improved health and survival among children.
A massive international DNA analysis of pregnant women has identified for the first time six gene regions that influence the length of pregnancy and the timing of birth. The findings may lead to new ways to prevent preterm birth and its consequences — the leading cause of death among children under age 5 worldwide.
In a large analysis of genetic data, a team has first looked into what causes type 2 diabetes (T2D) and second clarified how T2D and coronary heart disease (CHD) — the two diseases that are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, are linked.
For the first time, researchers present data on how nervous system tumors, called neuroblastomas, spread. Their paper clarifies the relationship between two genes that fuel the aggressive spread of neuroblastomas.
Scientists have identified several genes and gene clusters associated with the immune response to flu vaccination. The findings point to the prospect of using genetic profiles to predict individual responses to the flu vaccine.
DNA in all organisms from yeast to humans encodes the genes that make it possible to live and reproduce. But these beneficial genes make up only 2% of our DNA. Now researchers have unveiled a novel mechanism for gene expression.
A new study shows that a molecule that regulates liver-cell metabolism and suppresses liver-cancer development interacts with thousands of genes in liver cells, and that when levels of the molecule go down, such as during liver-cancer development, the activity of certain cancer-promoting genes goes up. The findings could one day help doctors better predict survival in liver cancer patients and help determine whether the molecule — called microRNA-122 — should be developed as an anticancer drug.
A new Pathology Atlas is launched today with an analysis of all human genes in all major cancers showing the consequence of their corresponding protein levels for overall patient survival. The difference in expression patterns of individual cancers observed in the study strongly reinforces the need for personalized cancer treatment based on precision medicine.